The first construction of the Ka’bah was done by the Angels. Hazrat Ja’far Saadiq (Radiallahu Ta’ala Anh) states, “I was in Makkah with my father and I sat close to the Hajr-e-Aswad while my father was performing Salaah. Suddenly a white-haired and white-bearded person with broad shoulders and chest appeared and sat down beside him. He had two large sheets on him like a person in Ihraam. Upon seeing him my father hastened his Salaah and went and sat beside him. The person said, “O Abu Ja’far! Tell me how this house came to be built?” My father replied, “Who are you?” The person replied that he was from Syria. My father said, “This House came into being when Allah Ta’ala said to the Angels, “I am about to place My Caliph on the earth…” The Angels said, “Will You place (as a Caliph) one who will spread turmoil in it and shed blood? Whereas we glorify Youwith praise and proclaim Your Sanctity.”This displeased Allah Ta’ala and the Angels tried to please Allah Almighty by walking around the ‘Arsh of Allah Ta’ala seven times which pleased Him. Allah Ta’ala said to the Angels, “Build a House for Me on the earth so that when I am displeased with the children of Adam if they walk around that House just as you have walked around the ‘Arsh I will become pleased with them.” Upon receiving this divine order the Angels built the blessed Ka’bah.”” [Al Isaabah Fi Ma’arifatil Sahaabah]
When Hazrat Adam (Alaihis Salaam) was sent onto the earth he asked Allah Almighty why he could no longer hear the voices of the Angels and Allah Ta’ala replied that it was because of his error in judgement and that he should build a house for Him and perform Tawaaf of it and remember and praise Him close to it as he had heard the Angels remembering and praising Allah Ta’ala. Hazrat Adam (Alaihis Salaam) came to Makkah and built the Ka’bah using the rocks from five mountains (Mount Labnaan, Zeyta, Sina, Joodi and Hara). The first human to build the Ka’bah, perform Tawaaf of it and pray Salaah in it was Hazrat Adam (Alaihis Salaam). [Taarikhe Makkatul Musharrafa wa Masjidul Haraam]
This tells us that the Ka’bah was built so that when a slave of Allah Ta’ala finds himself covered in sins he should present himself at the House of his Lord and humbly walk around this House in order to purify himself from those sins. We also learn from this that Tawaaf was first performed by the Angels and to keep this act (of worship) alive Allah Ta’ala ordered them to build a House on earth so that through the blessings of performing Tawaaf of the Ka’bah He would continue to forgive and bless His slaves.
The second construction took place when once Hazrat Ibrahim (Alaihis Salaam) came to Makkah (from Shaam) and said to Hazrat Ismail (Alaihis Salaam), “My son! I have received an order from Allah Almighty. Will you help me in carrying it out?” Hazrat Ismail (Alaihis Salaam) replied that he would and Hazrat Ibrahim (Alaihis Salaam) told him that the order from Allah Ta’ala was to reconstruct the Ka’bah in Makkah. They both then started rebuilding the Ka’bah and Hazrat Ismail (Alaihis Salaam) would bring the rocks and Hazrat Ibrahim (Alaihis Salaam)would construct the walls. Hazrat Ismail (Alaihis Salaam) brought a large rock on which Hazrat Ibrahim (Alaihis Salaam) would stand in order to reach the higher parts of the wall and in this way the Ka’bah was reconstructed. The rock on which he stood became known as the Maqaam-e-Ibrahim.
The Ka’bah was rebuilt for the third time by the Quraish. When the Quraish made the intention to rebuild the Ka’bah a large snake blocked their plans. The snake would not allow them to get close to the Ka’bah. All the people of Quraish got together and humbly made Dua to Allah Ta’ala in the following manner: ‘O Allah! You know that we want to beautify Your House. We have no other intention but to beautify it. If You are pleased with that then guide us, otherwise we are happy with whatever You desire.” Subsequently their Dua was accepted and they heard the sound of a large bird descending from the sky. They saw that the bird was like a large bird of prey whose back was black and whose stomach and feet were white. It took the head of the snake in its beak and started flying. The Quraish saw that its beak was very wide and it took the snake and dropped it into the mountains. After this the Quraish raised the old walls and constructed new walls for the Ka’bah. [Tafseer Haqqi]
Rasoolullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was himself present and involved with the third construction of the Ka’bah and would lift and bring stones for its construction. When the time came to place Hajr-e-Aswad (Black Stone) into the wall a great dispute erupted amongst the Quraish. Each clan wanted to be the ones to place it into the wall of the Ka’bah as this would be a sign of great pride and respect for the clan. This dispute lasted for four days and even went as far as swords being drawn against each other. On the fifth day the Quraish gathered by the Ka’bah in order to settle the dispute. An elderly person made the suggestion that the first person to enter Haram the next day should be made the intermediary and everyone should abide by the decision that he makes. Everyone agreed to this suggestion. The next day Rasoolullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) was the first to enter the Haram and upon seeing him everyone proclaimed, “By Allah! He is the honest, truthful one and we will abide by whatever decision he makes.” Rasoolullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam) then resolved this by asking each clan to select a leader, thereafter placing the Hajr-e-Aswad on a cloth and asking those chosen to lift it by its ends. The leaders lifted the cloth and Rasoolullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)lifted the Hajr-e-Aswad and placed it with his own blessed hands. In this manner a great dispute was averted which would have claimed many lives. [Seerat Ibn Hishaam]
Hazrat Aisha Siddiqa (Radiallahu Ta’ala Anha) once asked Rasoolullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam)if Hateem was a part of the Ka’bah and he replied that it was. She then asked him why the door of the Ka’bah was raised and he replied that that was how the Quraish had built it. He then added, “If there were still not signs of the days of ignorance in them then I would demolish this door that they have built and built a door that was level with the ground, and would make two doors – one to enter with and one to exit. I would also add five cubits to it from Hajr‑e‑Aswad. But because this is how the Quraish have built it I am going to leave it as it is.” [Musnad Abi Ya’laa]
When Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair (Radiallahu Ta’ala Anh) fought a battle against the people of Shaam, their assault resulted in part of the Ka’bah being damaged by fire. He then reconstructed the Ka’bah according to the narration of Hazrat Aisha Siddiqa (Radiallahu Ta’ala Anha) and built two doors and increased the size towards Hajr-e-Aswad. [Tafseer Roohul Bayaan]
When Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair (Radiallahu Ta’ala Anh) was martyred by the oppressive governor, Hajaaj bin Yusuf, the latter ordered that the alterations made by Hazrat Abdullah bin Zubair (Radiallahu Ta’ala Anh)should be demolished and he rebuilt the Ka’bah according to its form when the Quraish had built it. This is the Ka’bah of the present day. [Tafseer Roohul Bayaan]
May Allah Ta’ala grant us the opportunity to present ourselves in the Holy Ka’bah and the Ka’bah of the Ka’bah, the Roza Mubarak of Rasoolullah (Sallallahu Alaihi Wasallam), Ameen.